Cunha, B.P.; Fonseca, G. & Amaral, A.C.Z. (2023). Two new species of Cyatholaimidae (Nematoda: Chromadorida) from the Southeastern Brazilian coast with emphasis on the pore complex and lateral pore-like structures. PeerJ. DOI 10.7717/peerj.14712.
Cyatholaimidae is a common and diverse family of mainly marine nematodes, potentially, with a large number of species to be discovered. The taxonomy of the group is marked by a lack of information about the evolutionary history of the characters and of detailed descriptions of morphological structures that may be taxonomically relevant. Two new species of the family are described from a sublittoral region in Southeastern Brazil, emphasizing the importance of the distribution and morphology of pore complex and pore-like structures present on the cuticle. The taxonomic importance of the cuticle ornamentation and spicule shape for the Biarmifer species, as well as the precloacal supplements structures of Pomponema species, are discussed. Biarmifer nesiotes sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus by the presence of eight longitudinal rows of pore complex on the cuticle and by the shape of the copulatory structure. Pomponema longispiculum sp. nov. differs from the most similar species, P. stomachor Wieser, 1954, by the smaller number of turns of the amphidial fovea, the shorter tail and the beginning of the cuticle lateral differentiation (3/4 of the pharynx length vs. end of the pharynx, respectively). We also obtained the SSU rDNA sequence from Pomponema longispiculum sp. nov., which is closely related to Pomponema sp. (MN250093) by about 91%. Updated tabular keys to species identification of each genus (Biarmifer and Pomponema) are included, containing morphometric data, characters related to cuticle ornamentation, and copulatory structures.