Two new species of Aphanonchus are described from Germany and Ivory Coast. Aphanonchus europaeus sp. n., from Germany, is best characterised by 1.1-1.4 mm long body, presence of 50-96 lateral epidermal glands; female without neck setae, with straight vagina without sclerotisations and three to nine prevulval alveoli; male with a pair of neck setae, 15 tubular and 20 alveolar supplements, one pair of precloacal and four pairs of caudal setae, 39 µm long spicules. Aphanonchus africanus sp. n., from Ivory Coast, is characterised by 1.0-1.3 mm long body, presence of 37 to 71 lateral epidermal glands; female with a pair of neck setae, straight to slightly sinuous vagina without sclerotisations, and without alveoli; male with a pair of neck setae, 12-18 tubular and 54-80 alveolar supplements, a pair of precloacal and four pairs of caudal setae, 35.5-43 µm long spicules. Morphological data, based on specimens of A. bayensis from Costa Rica, A. multipapillatus from Colombia and Suriname, A. obesus from Ivory Coast and the type locality in Vietnam, and type specimens of A. longiceras, are presented and supplement the descriptions of these four species. An emended diagnosis and a revised classification of Aphanonchus are proposed and a key to the species of the genus is provided.