Ten new species of Aphanolaimus are described and illustrated. These are: A. unisexus and A. westafricanus from West Africa (Nigeria, Cameroon, Guinea and Ivory Coast); A. perlitus from Nigeria and Cameroon, A. trivialis and A. tritubifer from India; A. furcatus and A. recedens from Ecuador; A. duplex and A. sclerolaimus from Colombia and A. crassatus from St. Lucia. Of these, A. unisexus, A. crassatus, A. tritubifer, A. duplex and A. furcatus have total body annules about 200 or less. Other important diagnostic characters of these species are the presence of longitudinal striae or grooves on body annules in A. unisexus, A. crassatus and A. tritubifer, lack of males in A. unisexus, 4-5 µm thick cuticle and cephalic setae adpressed to the head in A. crassatus, and only three ventromedian supplements in males of A. tritubifer. Cephalic setae are bifurcate in A. duplex and A. furcatus which differ from A. furcifer, the only other species with bifurcate setae, in having smaller body size and smaller number of body, oesophageal and tail annules. A. trivialis also has longitudinal striae on body annules but differs from other such species in having double indentations on lateral fields opposite each annule on most of the body. A. perlitus and A. sclerolaimus have sclerotized stoma, but the former has stronger sclerotization appearing as pearly globules in lateral view and the head is only 2-3 (2.5) adjacent body annules high. They differ from A. microlaimus De Coninck, 1935, in having body less than 1 mm long and fewer body annules (females with 225-265 (246) body annules in A. perlitus, and 261-360 (309) annules in A. sclerolaimus). A. westafricanus is recognized by a combination of these characters: females having 0.52-0.72 mm long body, 217-320 body annules, 8-10 µm long cephalic setae, lateral field originating on the 17th to 24th annule from head close to second lateral body pore, tail with 45-68 (56) annules and a short conoid to mammiform spinneret, and the males with 12.0-15.5 (13.5) µm long spicules. A. recedens is recognized by its lateral fields originating far posteriorly, 74-80 µm from anterior end of body and vulva located at 42-44 percent of body.